This Occasional Paper, the fourth in a series of Occasional Papers published by the OSR/CTHB, is the result of the Alliance High-level Conference on “Unprotected Work, Invisible Exploitation: Trafficking for the Purpose of Domestic Servitude” hosted by the Special Representative in Vienna on 17 and 18 June 2010 and the Background Paper which informed the dialogue and exchange at the Conference. The Paper is meant to provide a policy tool for decision makers and practitioners dealing with trafficking in human beings on the ground. It is based on desk research, field work and case study analyses in order to shed light on one of the most invisible forms of modern-day slavery. The Paper also benefits from the comments, inputs and expertise of specialized NGOs. Furthermore, it is enriched by the valuable contributions and direct experience of policy makers and public officials (including law enforcement, prosecutors, judges, diplomats), as well as trade unions, international organizations and academics who participated in the Alliance Conference.